See trips hub: Europe Road Ways

For themes of conflict, present in any country, see Studying War.

Wednesday, September 23, 2009

Slave Labor Lists. The Dignity of Remembering. Is It Appropriate? Yes.

 Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation

Do your own research. Where are the rest of the camps and sites? More informative than Germany is Austria - and that only lately.  See Austria Road Ways, Mauthausen Concentration Camp >

Also, look up the Slave Labor Class I List, from the Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks), Special Master's Proposal, September 11, 2000. Go to ://www.dpcamps.org/slavecamplist.pdf/

The camps and sites listed are for both Austria and Germany, but the point here is that a tourist can visit everywhere from Dusseldorf to Munich to Frankfurt Am Main and find no reference to what happened there.

Saturday, May 23, 2009

Buchenwald. Book: "The Seventh Well"

Fred Wander was kept in various concentration and labor camps in France and Germany during the World War II era, see his book, "The Seventh Well," reviewed at the New York Times, ://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/20/books/review/Hoffman-t.html/

The review is far better than any summary we could provide, so we refer you directly to it. And the book. The French work camps - a different angle to the German. The book appeared in East Germany in 1970, and only now is in English translation, by Michael Hofman.

Mr. Wander was in Buchenwald at the time of the Allied liberation, in 1945.

See photos and description at Germany Road Ways, Buchenwald, Labor Camp.

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Fritzlar and Alsfeld: And Teutonic Knights of the Era. Roots of Fealty.

Preserved Towns
Where to Lean Does Not Mean to Fall

1. Fritzlar.
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This town boasts a great ring of medieval walls. The town dates from early 8th century. The Fritzlar official site is at www.fritzlar.de/, and shows good photos. The Alsfeld official site lacks photos, so go to Alsfeld at Wikipedia, at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alsfeld. Big squares.

Seeing these preserved towns, unbombed, was the best start for a trip in Germany. There has been destruction of entire cities, now reconstructed as best could be done with the money and time and urgency. Half timber is hardest to reconstruct, because the old cities show such bulges and tilted rooms inside, walls and ceilings askew. That cannot be replicated. The botox of reconstruction; but here, not voluntary.

2. Alsfeld.
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This town is a contemporary of Fritzlar, dating from the late 9th century. In both, see later 16th-17th century half-timber houses so big and old that the top floors tilt over the little alleyways and nearly meet (some may even meet at the top).

3. Our interest: Life In Between the foundings and the later merchant eras: Teutonic Knights; Crusades and Post Crusades
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Spending time in these old towns leads to considering what life was like from the many foundings in the 8th-9th Centuries, through the dominance of the Roman Church over the Orthodox Christians, and others, wars against Islam, and the Crusades, see that era at Crusader Characters at ://www.snunit.k12.il/njeru/crusaders_characters.htm. That may be the best site for a fast look at Crusader times.

Then, there is time until the later emerging wealth, independence and merchant eras, seen in the big half-timbered places of the 16th and 17th Centuries. What happened after the fervor and failure of the Crusades, to all those militarists who then had nothing noble to do?
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That era includes most of the Crusades and persecutions of Reform types in Europe; and battle against "Infidels" abroad. Heady stuff. Adenalin, purpose, go!

The Teutonic Knights were separate from other Knights of the Crusades era.

It was strongly ethnic, as opposed to the Templars and the Hospitallers that were more international in character, although it began as a Hospitaller Order. See "The Knights of the Teutonic Order," at ://www.snunit.k12.il/njeru/ef37.htm.

They were recognized in 1199 - is that also when Pope Innocent III ordered their uniforms - the white tunic and black cross. We believe there was a Papal bull to that effect. There were many competitions and power-plays among rulers-sponsors, and it looks like only the Teutons lived on. See ://www.middle-ages.org.uk/teutonic-knights.htm/,

After the Crusades, they moved their center to Venice, and then to Prussia, looking for work and finally finding it. They became a mercenary-militaristic group commissioned to conquer the Orthodox Christians in Eastern Europe* just as they had been after the "infidels" in the Holy Land.

The concept suited, even though those Orthodox were themselves Christian. Kill your brethren; the Grand Master and God so require. A human differential. The "other" is expendable.

They limited their membership to Germans, as Teutonic Knights, so there were no members whose relatives might be involved, to oppose the mission. At their Church of St. Mary, only German speakers received a blessing. This also from ://www.snunit.k12.il/njeru/crusaders_characters.htm/

Is it no accident that our concept of "club" comes from the German, an honored tradition - the old German gelubde, the "bodies of men united by a common vow," see the History of Friedrich II, by Thomas Carlyle, at ://carlyle.classicauthors.net/Friedrich/Friedrich16.html - this from Chapter 6, "The Teutsch Ritters or Teutonic Order."

The Teutch Order. Take time for some serious reading. Go there, at the Carlyle site.

Are these observations about old Germania on point:
  • That there are deep roots of fealty to an individual leader, even unto death. This was common in the middle ages, in a feudal social structure; so the question is whether it is more pronounced in Germany than in other European countries. Does loyalty to the leader trump what the follower is asked to do in the name of the leader.Of interest is the evolution of the Teutonic Knights during and after the Crusades. They continued openly, whereas the Knights Templar were destroyed; but the Teutons carried forward in a different and more mercenary and politicized function. Why the differing treatment? Why were the Teutons embraced, but the Templars ground down, as we are told they were. Were the Templars too independent of the rulers of the time, too wealthy, too powerful.
  • That there are deep roots of the special quality that Germans perceive in their own heritage. The membership in the Teutonic Knights was limited to Germans. Is that mere convenience of locale and common custom, or early Aryanism? This takes more research, and professionals and we are not that. We look and ask.
Did the Knights Templar accept Germans? It was international, so probably so. The Middle Ages site addresses the history of the Teutonics and division from the Templars. The Teutonic Order was originally the Teutonic Knights of the Hospital of the Blessed Virgin.

Was a combination of the Teutonic militarist power with loyalty to God and Mary and the Grand Master, combined with the exclusivity of only German membership, contribute to their amenability to the slaughter of the Orthodox Christians in Eastern Europe, because the Eastern Europeans had not been converted by the Roman branch, and so were considered pagan (but were really just a threat to the Pope?)

See Martin Luther's Stove, Fear the Follower. What, if anything, does the Teutonic Knight or other Crusading experience have on our cultures. Obey the authority. Is that our heritage.

Difficult issues. Look up Saints Cyril and Methodius - their legacy of conversions to Eastern Europe to Orthodoxy is still strong despite all. * Look at the deep wounds from the perception of the Orthodox in the Balkan states during WWII that the Roman branch stood by as the Orthodox were killed by the Nazi regimes. People disagree. Look up Cardinal Stepinac, said to have stood by and converted Orthodox to Roman Catholicism before their deaths, rather than oppose the slaughter; is that so? and Jasenovac, starting with Zagreb, Croatia, and his burial place at Croatia Road Ways, Cardinal Stepinac, St. Stephen's. See also the site itself at Croatia Road Ways, Jasenovac. Is he asking for forgiveness, or giving thanks.

Religion, politics, who the leader, who the follower, who takes responsibility, who is freed from it, if anyone.

These issues do not stop at country borders. We all follow something. Everybody is everybody. Read further Teutonic Knight history, and see its emblem, at The Teutonic Order, at ://www.heraldica.org/topics/orders/teutonic.htm/

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* Saints Cyril and Methodius:
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They began their conversions in the 9th Century, when all were Orthodox who were Christian, and before the Roman Branch separated itself from the other Orthodox Branches of Christianity.

Starting from Thessaloniki, Greece, they moved north into eastern Europe, and that included parts of Germany and Prussia.
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Read about Saints Cyril and Methodius at Czech Republic Road Ways, entry for Operation Anthropoid during World War II where members of the Czech Resistance were betrayed, found and died in the crypt of this Orthodox Church named for Cyril and Methodius. See http://czechrepublicroadways.blogspot.com/2007/08/prague-at-war-world-war-ii-operation.html

Kassel and The Brothers Grimm

Kassel


The town of Kassel is first mentioned in documents from 913. See its ancient heritage at ://www.abnachkassel.de/en/history.php/. In 1943, British bombers destroyed 90% of the city, most not rebuilt in the old style, but as 1950's. Urban renewal was not helpful - the traffic pattern is hard to follow, but we appreciate the stresses and urgency to rebuild something.

We were interested in The Brothers Grimm Museum. Read one of the lesser-known fairy tales at Fitcher's Bird, Migratory Patterns of Cultural Tales.  For the city of Kassel, see www.kassel.de/. There are photo galleries at images.google.com/images?q=kassel+germany&hl=en&lr=&rls=GGGL,GGGL:2006-28,GGGL:en&sa=X&oi=images&ct=titl/  See how the Tales of the Brothers Grimm have been changed over the years, see in particular the Red Riding Hood and Rapunzel posts at Migratory Patterns of Tales.
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There was an illustration silhouette exhibit at the time. If it is part of the permanent collection, do not miss the woodcuts and meticulous, cuticle-scissor-minutely detailed, silhouette-work used as illustrations for the fairy tales, see www.nationalgeographic.com/grimm/article, in black, gray, white, and sometimes a tiny yellow in a castle window. That is where she waits.
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That might have been a roving exhibit and no longer there. We do not recall the artist, the superior snipper.
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Nearby is a park that had labeled certain trees that survived the bombings in WWII. It is strangely moving to see them still there.
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 Kassel in the 1500's:

See it before its 1943 bombing at ://www. historic-cities.huji.ac.il/germany/kassel/maps/braun_hogenberg_I_26_2_b.jpg.
In Kassel, see the photo gallery at images.google.com/images?q=kassel+germany&hl=en&lr=&rls=GGGL,GGGL:2006-28,GGGL:en&sa=X&oi=images&ct=title/